Joseph Murphy, Ph.D., D.D.
W. T. Benda
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In part an elegy for a way of life almost vanished at the time of its writing, Willa Cather's novel My 聲tonia is also an inquiry into what it means to be an American. Cather explores characteristically American questions of identity through the novel's central relationship, the friendship between transplanted Virginian Jim Burden and Bohemian immigrant 聲tonia Shimerda. The novel begins with an introduction by an unnamed narrator, a woman who grew up in Nebraska with Jim and 聲tonia. This introduction emphasizes the themes that shape the novelmovement, discontinuous identity, and romantic hopefulness. The narrator unexpectedly meets the adult Jim Burden on a train crossing Iowa, and the two renew their acquaintance and reminisce about 聲tonia, who represents for both of them "the country, the conditions, the whole adventure of our childhood" (p. 5). At the narrator's suggestion, Jim agrees to write a portrait of 聲tonia. As he describes it, Jim's portrait is impulsive, written without notes and without "any form" (p. 6). It is the spontaneous overflow of Jim's recollected emotion, in keeping with his "naturally romantic and ardent disposition" (p. 4). Before giving the manuscript to the narrator, Jim titles it "聲tonia"; after frowning a moment, he adds "my." The narrator notes that this "seemed to satisfy him," without suggesting whether Jim's title is a gesture of possessiveness, an acknowledgment of bias, or indicative of some other meaning (p. 6).
Jim begins his story, at age ten, with his first hearing of 聲tonia on what seems to him "an interminable journey across the great midland plain of North America" (p. 9). The recently orphaned Jim, who is going to live with his grandparents, feels that "there was nothing but land: not a country at all, but the material out of which countries are made" (p. 12). Jim and 聲tonia, passengers on the same train, are each challenged to feel at home in this land that initially produces the feeling of being "erased, blotted out" (p. 13).
It is Jim's friendship with 聲tonia that enables him to feel at home on the prairie farm. Mr. Shimerda's plea to Jim to "Te-e-ach, te-e-ach my 聲tonia!" gives Jim a purpose and a sense of competence (p. 26). His relationship with "Tony" and the adventures they share become the most important part of his life. What makes people who they are is one of the mysteries My 聲tonia plumbs. To what extent is personality born, and to what extent made? Cather suggests that Jim is shaped by his early friendship with 聲tonia, and also that he is drawn to her because they are fundamentally alike. Jim shares 聲tonia's love for her father, who comes to represent the culture and sensitivity that life on the prairie tends to crush. Like Mr. Shimerda and Mrs. Steavens, Jim recognizes that 聲tonia is special and refers to her as "my 聲tonia" (p. 171). 聲tonia becomes a touchstone in the novel: other characters reveal themselves through their responses to her. Those who are generous and compassionateJim's grandparents, Mrs. Harling, and the Widow Steavenslove and try to defend her. Those who are selfish and corruptAmbrosch, Wick Cutter, and Larry Donovanseek to take advantage of her.
Although she is in this respect the novel's still center, 聲tonia is also an image of American freedom and mobility, as evidenced by her choosing to become a "hired girl" at the Harlings, and then by her leaving the Harlings when they object to her going dancing. 聲tonia's romance with Larry Donovan points up both Donovan's corruptionhe is happy to use and abandon her, as a lower-class immigrant girland 聲tonia's idealism. Her subsequent embrace of motherhood and farming highlights her vibrant and indomitable nature, the nature that Jim has always felt sets apart the Bohemian "hired girls" from the town girls. When Jim finds her again, she is married to a fellow countryman and has so many children that Jim is made "dizzy" by the sight of them (p. 252). He sees 聲tonia's return to farming as a return to a world of timeless realities that has escaped the corruption he associates with small-town life. Her life stands in implicit contrast to Jim's own, which includes a childless marriage to a brittle socialite.
The past that Jim recalls so passionately is not only his own past, but also the past of the West. When we meet him in the introduction, he is working for the railroads that are transforming the West; the industrialized nation is encroaching on the agrarian world of Jim's childhood. Cather suggests that Jim is looking back with longing on a time when the entire country (and he as well) was more innocent and hopeful. The novel's epigram from Virgil's Georgics, "Optima dies prima fugit," is translated by Jim as, "in the lives of mortals, the best days are the first to flee" (p. 199). Each of Jim's moves, after the first move to Nebraska, entails a lossfrom the farm to Black Hawk, from Black Hawk to college, from college to work and a wife who does not share his past or his passion. Cather depicts a man who is eager to move away and contend with the larger world, but then spends his emotional energy attempting to recapture the past. Jim describes some memories as "realities" that are "better than anything that can ever happen to one again" (p. 245). The book ends with him going back over the road he and 聲tonia traveled the night they first saw each other, giving him a sense of "what a little circle man's experience is" (p. 273). Is Jim's absorption in his childhood memories more a flight from adult disappointments or a valid recognition that those early days were more vital and meaningful? This deeply American novel, which engages the ideas of upward mobility and remaking identity, asks whether we canor shouldever leave the past behind.
Willa Cather was born near Winchester, Virginia, in 1873. When she was nine, her family moved to Nebraska to join her paternal grandparents and uncle. Cather was profoundly affected by moving from the settled Virginia landscape to the untamed Nebraska prairie. On the farm, her neighbors included immigrants from Bohemia (now most of the Czech Republic), Sweden, Norway, and Denmark. Their pioneering lives and stories of the old country were among her strongest influences.
Taught at home by her grandmothers, Cather read Latin and the English classics. In later life, she cited Virgil as her first literary influence. While she was a schoolgirl, Cather's family moved to the town of Red Cloud, the model for Black Hawk in My 聲tonia, and she attended high school there. She worked her way through the University of Nebraska, planning to study medicine until a professor secretly submitted one of her essays to the Nebraska State Journal. Seeing her work in print convinced her to become a writer. After graduating, she worked for Pittsburgh's Daily Leader and taught high school English. In 1905, she published a collection of short stories, and favorable reviews inspired her to move with her companion Isabelle McClung to New York City, where she became managing editor of McClure's Magazine.
In 1912, Cather left McClure's and published her first novel, Alexander's Bridge, responding to author Sarah Orne Jewett's urging that she make time to fulfill her creative gifts. With her novel O Pioneers! (1913), set on the Nebraska frontier, Cather achieved artistic and critical success as a novelist. In 1916, Isabelle McClung announced her intention to marry, and Cather visited Nebraska in an effort to regain her emotional equilibrium and artistic inspiration. There she renewed her friendship with Annie Sadilek Pavelka, the inspiration for 聲tonia. My 聲tonia, generally regarded as Cather's masterpiece, was published in 1918.
Cather's simple yet lyrical style and uniquely American subject matter led critics to recognize her as a major author during her lifetime. A Lost Lady (1923), The Professor's House (1925), Death Comes for the Archbishop (1927), and Sapphira and the Slave Girl (1940) are among her most acclaimed books, as well as One of Ours (1922), which won the Pulitzer Prize. She was living with her companion Edith Lewis in New York City when she died on April 24, 1947.
- Why is getting "a picture" of 聲tonia important enough to Jim and the narrator of the introduction that they decide to write about her? (p. 5)
- When Jim and 聲tonia meet as children, why do they become such close friends?
- Why does Pavel's story about the wolves and the wedding party affect Jim and 聲tonia so deeply?
- Who or what does Cather intend us to see as responsible for Mr. Shimerda's suicide?
- Why does Cather repeatedly include images of people and objects silhouetted against the sun? What does the vision of the plough mean to Jim?
- Why does Jim prefer "the hired girls" to the Black Hawk girls? Is Frances right when she says that Jim puts "a kind of glamour" over the hired girls? (p. 175)
- What is Cather suggesting about gender roles with the characters Frances, 聲tonia, and Lena?
- Why is 聲tonia so determined to keep going to the dancing tent that she would rather leave her job with the Harlings than stop dancing?
- Why does the incident at Wick Cutter's house make Jim feel that he never wants to see 聲tonia again and that he hated her almost as much as he hated Cutter?
- Why does Jim leave Lena Lingard in the end, despite how much he enjoys being with her?
- Why does Jim tell 聲tonia, "I'd have liked to have you for a sweetheart, or a wife, or my mother or my sisteranything that a woman can be to a man"? (p. 240)
- What does Jim mean when he says that "Cuzak had been made the instrument of 聲tonia's special mission" (p. 270)? What is her mission?
- Why is remembering the past so important to Jim? Why does he agree with Virgil that "optima dies prima fugit"? (p. 199)
For Further Reflection
- How have immigrants enriched American culture? How have they been transformed by it?
- Would you agree with Virgil and Jim that the earliest days are the best and the most quickly gone?
- Do you agree that happiness consists of being "dissolved into something complete and great" (p. 20)?
Ellen Glasgow, Barren Ground (1925)
Dissatisfied with the role ordained for Southern ladies, Dorinda Oakley has a premarital affair. Its disastrous outcome leads her to direct her passions into farming and transforming the land.
Sarah Orne Jewett, The Country of the Pointed Firs (1896)
Jewett's sketches and tales of life in a rural Maine community lyrically depict the pleasures of living close to nature. Cather considered it a classic of the same rank as The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and The Scarlet Letter.
Sinclair Lewis, Main Street (1920)
Lewis indicts the insularity and priggishness of American small-town life through the tale of Carol Kennicott, a doctor's wife who struggles to bring an appreciation of culture to the citizens of Gopher Prairie.
Carson McCullers, The Heart Is a Lonely Hunter (1940)
Mick Kelly, a tomboy alienated from the Southern society around her, seeks out and listens to those who are similarly outcast, including a black doctor, a Jew, a socialist reformer, and a deaf man.
Virgil, Georgics (37-30 BCE)
A treatise on agriculture in poetic form, the Georgics contains as much philosophy as practical advice about farming. Virgil projects the return of peace and harmonious life on the land after the Roman civil wars have ended.